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NOUN TMA Timetable with TMA Opening and Closing Date 2018

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1. (a) Write out the meaning of these acronyms
i. VLSI:- Very Large Scale Integration
ii. RISC:- Reduced Instruction Set Computer
iii. PIC:- peripheral interface controller
iv. UTLB:- unified (instruction and data) translation look aside buffer
v. MMU:- memory management unit

(b) Using suitable diagram, explain the Von Neumann Architecture.

2. Using suitable diagram, discuss the Harvard Architecture, highlighting the improvement over the
Von Neumann Architecture.

3. Differentiate between the following microprocessor types based on hardware characteristics;
RISC, ISC, VLWI & Superscalar, clearly indicating four of their features each.

Features of the Various Hardware Characteristic
1. Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC)
1. large number of complex addressing modes
2. many versions of instructions for different operands
3. different execution times for instructions
4. few processor registers
5. microprogrammed control logic
2. Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC)
1. one instruction per clock cycle
2. memory accesses by dedicated load/store instructions
3. few addressing modes
4. hard-wired control logic
3. Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW)
1. statically determined instruction-level parallelism (under compiler control)
2. instructions are composed of different machine operations whose execution is started in parallel
3. many parallel functional units
4. large register sets
4. Superscalar Processors
1. ubclass of RISCs or CISCs
2. multiple instruction pipelines for overlapping execution of nstructions
3. parallelism not necessarily exposed to the compiler

4. Explain the principle of operation of DMA, highlighting its benefits.
Direct Memory Access, or DMA, is a method of accessing and transferring data stored in a computer's random access memory, or RAM, without having to involve the computer's central processing unit. This reduces demands on the CPU and allows for greater efficiency in running processes.

Its benefit include:-
Modern computers are able to simultaneously run many processes at once. Without the benefit of direct memory access, the CPU could be tied up a great percentage of time responding to slower peripherals needing access to information stored in memory. A device using one of the several DMA channels that modern computers come with can bypass the CPU. This allows all processes to run faster.

6. Explain the term Interrupt; clearly stating the actions taken by the microcontroller when an
interrupt is triggerred, enumerating at least five registers that the operation is protecting.
Interrupt routine must protect the following registers:
Registers R0-R7
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