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NOUN Past Questions and Answers - CIT 411 MICROCOMPUTERS AND MICROPROCESSORS MARCH/APRIL 2016 EXAMINATION

NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA
14-16 AHMADU BELLO WAY, VICTORIA ISLAND LAGOS
MARCH/APRIL 2016 EXAMINATION
SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

COURSE CODE: CIT 411
COURSE TITLE: MICROCOMPUTERS AND MICROPROCESSORS
Time: 2 HOURS
INSTRUCTION: Answer Question 1 and any other three.
1.
a. Distinguish between Von Neumann and Harvard architectures.

Answer
i) The von Neumann architecture is a computer design model that uses a processing unit and a single separate storage structure to hold both instructions and data
ii) A Harvard Architecture has one memory for instructions and a second for data. The name comes from the Harvard Mark 1, an electromechanical computer which pre-dates the stored-program concept of von Neumann.

b. Write a brief note on each of the following:
Assembler:- A program that translates assembly language into machine language.
RISC processor:- The RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) is a processor used in Apple’s PowerPC to introduced a new architecture that increased the speed of the processor because it had been designed to understand a relatively small number of basic instructions.

Multiprocessor:- .

2.
a. Distinguish between machine language and assembly language.

Answer
Machine language is the binary form of instructions that a processor can run directly.

Assembly Language:- is a programming language that is very similar to machine language, but uses symbols instead of binary numbers. it contains a short word or "mnemonic"

b. Write a brief note on each of the following:
Assembler directive:- The assembler directives are special instruction to the assembler program to define some specific operations but these directives are not part of the executable program
Subroutine:- A subroutine is called using the LCALL or the ACALL instruction
Instruction:-

3.
a. Briefly describe what Direct Memory Access (DMA) is.

Answer
Direct Memory Access, or DMA, is a method of accessing and transferring data stored in a computer's random access memory, or RAM, without having to involve the computer's central processing unit.

b. Distinguish between Instruction Set Architecture and Microarchitecture.
Instruction set architecture, or ISA, is the abstract image of a computing system that is seen by a machine language (or assembly language) programmer, including the instruction set, memory address modes, processor registers, and address and data formats.

WHILE Microarchitecture, also known as Computer organization is a lower level, more concrete, description of the system that involves how the constituent parts of the system are interconnected and how they interoperate in order to implement the ISA

4.
a. Write brief notes on the following:
Accumulator:-is an 8-bit register that is a part of arithmetic/logic unit (ALU). This register is used to store 8-bit data and to perform arithmetic and logical operations.
Program counter:- is a 16-bit register that deals with sequencing the execution of instructions. This register is a memory pointer.
Stack pointer:- The stack pointer is also a 16-bit register used as a memory pointer. It
points to a memory location in R/W memory, called the stack.

b. Write down the full interpretation of the following instructions:
MOV R2, #72h:- Move immediate data value 72h to register R2
POP 80h:- The data from current SP address is copied to 80h and SP is decremented.
ADD A, #22h:- Adds the number 22h to A, putting sum in A
INC R7:- Increment register R7

5.
a. Briefly describe what an interrupt is, and explain what happens when it is triggered.
An interrupt can be defined as some event, which interrupts normal program execution or
An interrupt is a signal that causes the computer to alter its normal flow of instruction execution.

When an interrupt is triggered, the following actions are taken automatically by the microcontroller.
i) The current Program Counter is saved on the stack, low-byte first.
ii) Interrupts of the same and lower priority are blocked.
iii) In the case of Timer and External interrupts, the corresponding interrupt flag is cleared.
iv) Program execution transfers to the corresponding interrupt handler vector address.
v) The Interrupt Handler Routine executes.

b. Write brief notes on the following:
Opcode:- Operation Code. The portion of an instruction word that specifies what kind of instruction it is.
Operand:- Operand(s) are internal register and are coded into the instruction.
Mnemonics:- A symbolic representation of an opcode.
Data Bus:- carries data stored in memory (or an I/O device) to the CPU or from the CPU to the memory (or I/O device).

NOUN Past Questions and Answers for CIT 411 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2015 EXAMINATION

1.
a. Write a brief note on each of the following:
i. VLSI technology
ii. RISC processor (previously answered)
iii. ALU:- The ALU performs the actual numerical and logic operation such as ‘add’, ‘subtract’, ‘AND’, ‘OR’, an so on.

b. D istinguish between Von N eumann and Harvard arch tectures. (previously answered)

2.
a. For a microprocessor briefly describe th e following features:
i. Word‐size:-
ii. Processing speed
iii. Instruction set:- determines what functions the microprocessor can perform.
iv. Memory:- The memory of a microcomputer is an essential part of the system.

b. Distinguish between independent I/O and memory‐mapped I/O.
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